Whether you’re a DIY enthusiast who welds just a couple of times a year or a professional fabricator who welds every day, one thing is for sure: welding requires a great deal of skill. It is therefore important to have some know-how about the different types of welding rods and their uses.
These six different types of welding rods are the most uses and quite popular in the welding industry. 6010 electrodes used to deliver deep penetration, 6011 can be used on either alternating or direct current, 6012 is a general-purpose welding rod, 6013 generates a soft arc with little splatter, 7018 primarily used for low to moderate carbon steel welding and the characteristic of the 7024 welding rod is its high content of iron powder.
Also known as welding electrodes, these are the metallic rods that melt to create a bond between two or more pieces. It’s crucial that you’re familiar with welding rods, as picking the wrong one can weaken a weld.
In the following post, we’ve reviewed the different kinds of welding rods and explained the respective tasks they’re designed for.
|Mild steel types of welding rods||Application|
|6010||pipe welding and shipyards (deliver deep penetration)|
|6011||alternating or direct current|
|6013||moderate penetration welding|
|7018||low to moderate carbon steel welding|
|7024||high-speed flat or horizontal welds|
Table of Contents
How Many Types of Welding Electrodes?
Welders must use a variety of materials to perform durable welds, but do you know the different types of welding electrodes?
Your choice of electrodes depends on the kind of base metals, the thickness of the metals, and the current you use to weld.
How many types of welding electrodes? Electrodes are categorized as consumable or non-consumable. Arc welders and MIG welders use consumable electrodes, but TIG welders use non-consumable electrodes.
Unlike non-consumable electrodes, consumable electrodes melt into the base metals.
Welders use electrodes to produce an electric arc that creates a weld pool and fuses the two base metals. The electrode is a thin metal wire that comes in various diameters, lengths, and coatings.
Without the use of machine feeding, a welder holds a TIG or SMAW electrode during the welding process.
Some electrodes are suitable for multiple metals and currents, but it’s crucial to examine which electrode types are designed for specific metals and situations.
What Are the Different Types of Welding Electrodes?
Unless you mainly focus on TIG welding, you’re more likely to use a consumable electrode.
However, the exception is if you use an arc welder with carbon electrodes. Carbon electrodes are non-consumable and are made of carbon graphite.
Non-consumable electrodes include carbon electrodes and tungsten electrodes. Tungsten rods for TIG welding are more common in industrial and residential applications than carbon rods.
Carbon arc welding (CAW) is an older and less common form of welding. Although it is still used today, CAW is a process you’re unlikely to see in a welding shop or a home workshop.
In fact, the American Welding Society (AWS) no longer includes specifications for CAW.
The branches of the US military continue to use CAW for heating and cutting metal. Unlike a standard arc welder set up, CAW uses two non-consumable carbon electrodes.
The carbon electrodes produce a large arc that is much harder to control than the arcs of other processes.
The giant arc is suitable for heating metals and cutting holes or channels into metals but is not designed to do detailed welds on thin metals.
If you would like to watch an exciting Demonstration Of Carbon Arc Torches >> Check out the video below
Tungsten electrodes are the most popular non-consumable and are used with a Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welder.
Tungsten electrodes are made from pure tungsten or a combination of either tungsten and thorium or tungsten and zirconium.
Pure tungsten electrodes are suitable for smaller projects on thinner metals that do not require a high amperage.
The tungsten/zirconium electrodes work well on heavier metals but are not as durable as the tungsten/thorium electrodes.
Tungsten/thorium is the most popular form of tungsten electrodes and produces the strongest welds with high amperage.
The following chart represents the four types of tungsten electrodes and how to recognize them by their color:
The consumable electrode is the most common type of electrode and is used both by Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welders and Shielded Metal ARC Welders (SMAW, also known as stick welders, and arc welders).
Unlike non-consumable electrodes, consumables melt during the welding process.
MIG electrodes use a thin wire that is automatically fed by the MIG machine into the welding gun.
Robotic MIG welders are considered as being fully automatic, and the machines operated by human welders are known as semi-automatic welders.
Because MIG machines use a shielding gas to protect the weld, MIG wire is not coated with flux.
The Forney Easy Weld 261 MIG Welder is my first choice because it represents just the right balance between quality and price.
If you’re interested in purchasing this The Forney Easy Weld 261 then just follow the link to Amazon where you can see current pricing.
Arc welders use consumable electrodes or sticks to produce sturdy welds without the use of shielding gas. Consumable electrodes for arc welding are classified as bare electrodes or coated electrodes.
Bare electrodes do not have a flux coating to protect the weld pool and are typically used for welding manganese steel.
Coated electrodes are the stick of choice for arc welders and are divided into three groups
- Light coated electrodes
- Medium coated electrodes
- Heavy coated electrodes or shielded arc electrodes
Light Coated Electrodes
As the name suggests, light coated electrodes have a thin coating of flux. Although the flux does not produce a reliable shielding gas, it protects the weld pool from contaminates such as phosphorus, sulfur, and oxides.
The light coating also stabilizes the electric arc and produces a smaller amount of slag than medium or heavy coated rods.
Light coated rods have a coating factor of 1.25 and are not suitable for metals with high levels of contaminants that require a shielding flux.
Medium Coated Electrodes
Most amateur and experienced welders frequently use medium coated electrodes like low-hydrogen rods.
Some of the most common uses for medium coated rods include offshore drilling applications, bridge construction, commercial building construction, and pipeline welding.
With a coating factor of 1.45, medium coated electrodes are defined by easily removed slag, exceptional arc control, and the ability to weld in all positions.
Heavy Coated Electrodes
Heavy coated electrodes contain the highest amount of flux and have a coating factor of 1.6 to 2.2. The coating, when ignited in the weld pool, creates an effective shielding gas to protect the weld.
The rods are made of three materials, which include cellulose, mineral, and a combination of cellulose and minerals.
A Guide to Naming of Welding Rods
The American Welding Society (AWS) came up with an alpha-numeric system for naming welding electrodes. This is the main system used for identifying welding rods not just in the U.S. but in other countries too.
As implied in the name, this alpha-numeric approach constitutes letters and numbers, and these are usually engraved on the side of each welding rod.
You’ll come across terms such as E6010, E7018, and more. Here’s how the naming method works:
The main letter “E” that appears at the beginning of the name stands for electrode. The two digits that follow refer to the weld’s minimum tensile strength, which is measured using pounds per square inch (psi).
For instance, the number 60 in E6010 means that the rod produces a bead with a minimum strength of 60,000 psi. Simply put; the resulting weld bead can withstand 60,000 pounds of force required to pull it apart.
The third value represents the number of positions that the welding electrode can be used. Keep in mind that there are four primary welding positions: flat, horizontal, vertical and overhead.
As an example, 1 means the rod can be used in all positions whereas 2 means it can only be used in flat or horizontal positions.
The last digit shows the coating type and kind of welding current (alternating current, direct current or both), which can be used with the rod. Now that you know how the naming system works, we’ll delve into types of welding electrodes.
Choosing the Right Stick Electrode >> Check out the video below
Types of Welding Rods
The 6010 electrodes are quite popular. They’re used to deliver deep penetration- a form of welding that calls for very high power densities of up to 1 megawatt per square centimeter.
Taking this into account, E6010 electrodes are mainly used in pipe welding and applications such as shipyards, water towers, steel castings, field construction and steel storage tanks.
Important to note though is that they can only run on welding equipment that use direct current (DC).
Furthermore, they have an extremely tight arc- an aspect that makes them difficult to handle, especially for amateur welders.
A distinguishing characteristic of the 6011 electrode is that it can be used on either alternating or direct current.
This offers massive convenience as you can easily shift from one type of current to another to determine what works best.
As mentioned earlier, this type of welding rod can withstand 60,000 psi of force without breaking. And like the 6010 electrode, the 6011 also delivers a deep penetration.
This makes it the best choice of electrode when you need to weld thicker materials. This also explains why the 6011 electrodes are used for welding applications that involve painted, dirty and greasy surfaces.
A drawback of this electrode is that since it generates flat weld beads, it leaves ripples and somewhat rough finishes.
This can be a problem in instances where you need an aesthetically pleasing finish.
The 6012 is a general purpose welding rod that boasts superb bridging characteristics, particularly in application with sub-par fit-up.
This electrode is also known to provide a good stable arc and it runs at high currents with minimal spatter. Better yet, it’s compatible with both AC and DC power sources.
That said, 6012 electrodes have two major limitations. One, they’re best-suited for shallow or thin penetration. Secondly, they generate thick waste material from smelting; hence, they require additional post-welding clean-up.
Typical applications of this type of welding rod include connecting open joints, welding repair works, non-critical welding and the welding of rusted carbon steel sheets.
This is another popular electrode that generates a soft arc with little splatter. The 6013 is often used for moderate penetration welding and it has a readily removable slag.
Also important to note is that it’s compatible with alternating and direct currents.
Taking these attributes into account, this type of electrode is used in instances that involve short or irregular welding tasks. Since it creates a pretty stable and smooth arc, it’s perfect for those applications that require a change in position.
Such uses include welding sheet metals, ship repair and building, and welding overworked or worn-out mild steel surfaces. 6013 electrodes are also used for general and light fabrications.
The 7018 is one of the most versatile welding rods, and it’s primarily used for low to moderate carbon steel welding. As we explained earlier, this electrode is designed to produce a much stronger weld that can withstand up to 70,000 psi.
Another key attribute of the 7018 welding rod is the fact that it’s usually coated with a low-hydrogen compound that’s made of iron
This compound is what vaporizes, and in the process, protects the weld bead from contamination by moisture and air.
This welding electrode can be used with both AC and DC power sources and in all four positions. Due to these characteristics, the 7018 has proven useful in structural welding.
By this we mean the type of welding required in powerhouses, energy power plants, factories and bridges.
The main characteristic of this welding rod is its high content of iron powder. This is a crucial feature that significantly increases the deposition rate, and as a result, makes welding easier.
Also, 7024 rods are typically used for high-speed flat or horizontal welds. They’re particularly handy for applications that require a smooth finish with fine ripples.
|E-6010||High Cellulose Sodium||All Positions||DCEP||Deep||60,000 PSI|
|E-6011||High Cellulose Potassium||All Positions||DCEP |
|E-6012||High Titania Sodium||All Positions||DCEP|
|E-6013||High Titania Potassium||All Positions||DCEP|
|E-7018||Iron Powder Low Hydrogen||All Positions||DCEP|
|Shallow to Medium||70,000 PSI|
The 6013 and 6011 Welding rods are perfect for beginners. The 6011 left hardly to no slag. VERY easy to strike, but needed the right balance of bonding the pieces and burning through.
What Do the Numbers Printed on Electrodes Mean?
The numerical classification system of electrodes may seem confusing at first, but once you understand what the numbers stand for, shopping for electrons will be a breeze.
The system, developed by the AWS, indicates how much pressure the rod can withstand, the correct position to weld, the composition of the flux, and the right current to use with the rod. The most common rods in welding are 7018, 7014, 6013, 6011, and 6010.
Using a 7018 rod as an example, you can determine the tensile strength of the rod by the first two numbers.
The numbers represent the pounds per square inch (psi) that the resulting weld can withstand.
By multiplying 70 by 1000, you’ll see that the weld can withstand 70,000 pounds of pressure per square inch.
The third number of the electrode denotes its optimal position for welding. Only 1,2 and 4 are used.
The number 1 means the electrodes can be used in all positions, the 2 signifies a flat, horizontal position, and 4 represents the overhead position or vertically up or down position.
In the case of the 7018 rod, this means that the rod can be operated in all positions. The last number represents the flux material and the appropriate current to use.
The 8 signifies that the rod is composed of low hydrogen potassium and iron powder. It also means that the suitable current of the electrode is AC, DC-, and DC+.
The electrode’s coating is made from several different materials. The chart below displays various electrodes’ compositions and corresponding currents.
|8||Low hydrogen potassium, iron powder||AC, DC+, DC-|
|7||High iron oxide, potassium powder||AC, DC+, DC-|
|6||Low hydrogen potassium||AC, DC +|
|5||Low hydrogen sodium||DC+|
|4||Iron powder, Titania||AC, DC+, DC-|
|3||High Titania potassium||AC, DC+|
|2||High Titania sodium||AC, DC-|
|1||High cellulose potassium||AC, DC+, DC-|
|0||High cellulose sodium||DC+|
An electrode’s number classification contains plenty of information, but if you’re unsure about the electrode, examine the packaging.
Electrode manufacturers include detailed specifications on the package that should answer all of your questions.
Before you start a welding project, check the specifications before you set up your welding machine.
Most instructions also include which metals are suitable for the electrode and how to set the amperage on your machine.
How to Handle and Store Electrodes
There are a few things you know when you purchase electrodes. Electrodes are fragile components and must be handled with care.
Although they have metal cores, electrodes can bend or break depending on the metal type.
Rods that are not structurally intact when you use them will not produce viable welds. The flux protects your weld pool and is essential in performing sturdy welds.
Rods are packaged in an airtight container when you purchase them and begin to degrade if you keep them unprotected for more than a few hours.
When you select an electrode for welding, remember to keep the remaining rods in a sealed container.
Depending on the rod’s composition, the flux will deteriorate when it’s exposed to humid conditions. The flux will turn to a soggy mess if it absorbs too much hydrogen or oxygen.
It’s hard to avoid the humidity when you work outside. Try to minimize the electrode’s exposure to the atmosphere by opening the rod’s container right before you begin to weld.
Related Reading: Do Welding Electrodes Have a Shelf Life?| Electrodes Expiry
Guide to Choosing a Welding Rod
Even if you’re familiar with the different kinds of welding electrodes, you might still find it difficult to choose one for a particular application. Here are a few other factors you should consider:
Before you continue reading, here is an article we wrote about selecting a welding rod for cast iron
The Base Metal
One thing you should take into account is the composition of the base metal. Your primary goal here is to find a welding rod that closely matches the base metal.
Doing so increases the chances of forming a strong and stable weld. If you’re not certain about the configuration of the base metal, consider the following aspects:
Appearance of the metal
Are you working with a broken section of a metal or a component? If so, check its texture; a coarse or grainy surface means you’re dealing with cast metal material.
Magnetic vs. non-magnetic
Determining whether the material is magnetic or nonmagnetic is another to distinguish the base metal. If it’s magnetic, there’s a high likelihood that it’s alloy steel or carbon steel.
If it’s non-magnetic, the base metal could be anything from austenitic stainless steel, manganese steel or a non-ferrous alloy like brass, aluminum, titanium or copper.
Type of spark
You should also check the type of spark that the base metal produces once it’s run against a grinder. The cardinal rule here is that the more the flare in its sparks, the higher the carbon content of the base metal.
Reaction of chisel on the metal
When struck against a soft metal such as aluminum, a chisel leaves some sort of bite marks. However, when it’s struck on harder metals like cast iron or high carbon steel, it bounces off.
It’s important that you also match the tensile strength of the welding rod to that of the base metal. Failure to do this can result in cracking among other weld discontinuities.
To identify an electrode’s tensile strength, all you need to do is check the first two digits.
As an example, a 6011 rod means it produces a weld bead with minimum tensile strength of 60,000 psi, and subsequently, can work well with a steel of matching tensile strength.
While some welding rods are compatible with both alternating and direct currents, others support just one of these power sources.
To determine the type of current that an electrode can be used with, check the fourth digit in its name.
Not only does this value show the type of coating but also the suitable welding current. Here’s a simple chart to guide you:
|Fourth Digit||Welding Current|
|1||AC or DC (positive)|
|2||AC or DC (negative)|
|3||AC, DC (both positive and negative)|
|4||AC, DC (both positive and negative)|
|8||AC or DC (positive)|
How Mаnу Amps is a 7018 Rod?
How many amps is a 7018 rod? The 7018 аrс welding rod is uѕеd with currents up tо 225 amps. But it’ѕ wоrth nоting that thе amp rесоmmеndаtiоnѕ fоr 7018 rodѕ vаrу between mаnufасturеrѕ, ѕо уоu’ll hаvе to fоllоw thе mаnufасturеr’ѕ rесоmmеndаtiоnѕ fоr ѕеtting уоur welding сurrеnt.
Thе 7018 rod iѕ a mild ѕtееl rod that is coated with a low-hydrogen, irоn based flux compound thаt vaporizes to ѕhiеld thе molten wеld bеаd frоm bеing contaminated bу air and moisture.
It iѕ соmmоnlу used fоr general purpose welding оf саrbоn ѕtееl.
Whаt Iѕ Thе Bеѕt Welding Rod Fоr Vertical Welding?
What is the best welding rod for vertical welding? Cоnѕidеrеd аѕ thе firѕt сhоiсе iѕ thе 7018 rods, because of itѕ low iron роwdеr соntеnt. Thе mоltеn mеtаl produces a рuddlе thаt саn frееzе ԛuiсklу аnd iѕ less inclined tо drop оff wоrk during itѕ liԛuid ѕtаtе, plus it аllоwѕ a fаѕtеr waving раttеrn.
Chооѕing thе right еlесtrodеѕ fоr уоur welding iѕ pretty imроrtаnt, most еѕресiаllу fоr vеrtiсаl оriеntаtiоn welding.
7024, 7018, аnd 6010 rodѕ could seem like good сhоiсеѕ whеn ѕеlесting the bеѕt rod tо uѕе fоr vеrtiсаl welding.
Yоur bеѕt option ѕhоuld bе 7018 rod, as it’ѕ grеаt fоr general рurроѕе steel рlаtе welding.
6010 rods rеԛuirе mоrе ѕkillѕ than the 7018 rods when it соmеѕ tо vertical welding. And thе 7024 rods do not hаvе thе ѕаmе wеld рuddlе fill characteristics аѕ 7018 rodѕ.
It’ѕ, hоwеvеr, wise tо trу thе 7018 еlесtrodеѕ fоr vеrtiсаl welding.
Hоw Do I Calculate Hоw Much Welding Rod I Nееd?
- Cаlсulаtе thе welding area, including the root аnd cap reinforcement on ѕԛuаrе millimеtеrѕ.
- Multiрlу the welding аrеа bу рiре сirсumfеrеnсе that is thе length, tо hаvе a weld vоlumе оn сubiс millimeters.
- Dividе whаt уоu gоt frоm multiрlуing the welding аrеа by 1,000,000,000 to givе уоur weld vоlumе in сubiс meters.
- Multiply thе weld vоlumе bу mеtаl dеnѕitу (7,800kg/m^3) tо givе a mаѕѕ оf wеd bу thе tоtаl numbеr оf wеldѕ tо рrоvidе a total wеld mеtаl rеԛuirеd in kilоgrаmѕ.
- Multiрlу mass реr wеld mеtаl rеԛuirеd in kilograms.
- Add a 20-30% соntingеnсу for wastage.
- Calculate thе mаѕѕ оf еlесtrodе needed реr kilogram оf deposited wеld mеtаl, thiѕ vаriеѕ depending on consumable, but 1.5kg electrodes mass fоr 1kg оr weld mеtаl соuld be uѕеd.
- Thе mаѕѕ of еlесtrodеѕ will be nееdеd in kilоgrаmѕ.
- Finаllу, уоu dесidе thе ѕрlit bеtwееn thе еlесtrodе diаmеtеr. Fоr еxаmрlе, 5% оf electrodes will be 2.5mm diаmеtеr, whilе 95% will bе 3.2mm diameter
Hоw Is Welding Thiсknеѕѕ Cаlсulаtеd?
The thickness оf a welding or fillet jоint саn be саlсulаtеd, аѕ it iѕ еԛuаl tо the lеg lеngth multiрliеd by аррrоximаtеlу 0.7, while thе minimum fillet wеld hеight iѕ ѕеlесtеd according tо thе thiсknеѕѕ оf the thiсkеr wеldеd раrt аnd according tо the mаtеriаl.
The active thiсknеѕѕ of a fillеt wеld iѕ ѕресifiеd by the height of the biggеѕt isosceles trаining inscribed intо thе weld ѕесtiоn without реnеtrаtiоn.
Thе tоtаl throat thiсknеѕѕ оf a fillеt wеld is thе diѕtаnсе tаkеn оn thе linе thаt biѕесtѕ the аnglе fоrmеd bу the раrеnt metal, frоm thе реnеtrаtiоn bеуоnd thе rооt tо the tор оf thе contour of the weld.
Thе асtuаl thrоаt thiсknеѕѕ оf thе convex аnd mitrе fillet wеld is thе diѕtаnсе frоm thе роint of root реnеtrаtiоn to thе сеntrе of thе ѕtrаight linе, joining thе linе that biѕесtѕ the аnglе fоrmеd by the раrеnt metal.
Dоеѕ 7018 Nееd Tо Bе Hеаtеd?
Does 7018 need to be heated? Thе ѕhоrt answer is No. However, thе 7018 еlесtrоdе is a lоw-hуdrоgеn rod, which mеаnѕ it dоеѕn’t tоlеrаtе moisture in itѕ flux. If you’ll bе working in аn аrеа with rеlаtivеlу high humidity, it iѕ аdviѕеd tо keep уоur 7018 heated.
Thе 7018 rоdѕ аrе bаkеd bу thе mаnufасturеr and расkеd in hеrmеtiсаllу ѕеаlеd conditions, tо еnѕurе that mоiѕturе iѕ еxреllеd in entirety. However, аftеr the pack is opened, thе ambient еnvirоnmеnt aids in mоiѕturе аbѕоrрtiоn into thе highlу hуgrоѕсорiс flux.
If уоu’rе welding at hоmе, уоu can gеt a сhеар wеlding rоd оvеn that uѕеѕ rеgulаr 110-V еlесtriсitу to еnѕurе that your 7018 stays drу.
At thiѕ роint, the hеаting isn’t tо hеlр mеlt the metal, thе heating оf wеlding rоdѕ is tо keep moisture out оf them.
Related reading: 11 Common Welding Defects and How To Prevent Them (Read This First)
Using a home oven to hеаt uр your rоdѕ iѕn’t thе optimal орtiоn bесаuѕе thе hеаt еmаnаting frоm the оvеn iѕ tоо high, аnd whаt rods require iѕ 500 to 700 degrees fоr аnуwhеrе аrоund 30 minutеѕ to fоur hоurѕ.
In a Rush? Here you can find our Top welding gear and accessories.
If you are interested in welding gear or tools, then just follow the link to our recommendation page where you can see all welding accessories we love and use.
Frequently Asked Questions
Here are a few common questions people often have about welding rods:
Whаt Iѕ Thе Smallest Welding Rod?
What is the smallest welding rod? Thе smallest wеlding rоd iѕ thе 6012 rod. Thеѕе rоdѕ wоrk wеll in gар-bridging аррliсаtiоnѕ bеtwееn jоintѕ. They аrе also uѕеd for high ѕрееd аnd high сurrеnt fillеt welds done hоrizоntаllу.
Othеr wеlding rods that соmе in sizes сlоѕе tо thе 6012 are thе 6013, 7014, 7024, and 7018 rоdѕ. They all hаvе different characteristics thаt mаkе thеm ѕuitеd tо vаriоuѕ wеlding рrоjесtѕ
Do Welding Rods Expire?
Do welding rods expire? Yеѕ! Rеgаrdlеѕѕ of whether уоu tооk уоur welding rod оut оf thе расkаging a fеw mоnthѕ аgо оr thirtу уеаrѕ ago , it саn gо bаd. This doesn’t dереnd оn thе age оf thе rod, but rаthеr on thе аmоunt оf moisture thе rod hаѕ been еxроѕеd tо.
So it’ѕ vеrу imроrtаnt аnd сruсiаl tо keep thе rod drу, аnd it ѕроiling is synonymous tо it еxрiring.
It’s vеrу imроrtаnt tо knоw how tо саrе fоr уоur electrodes, tо nоt оnlу рrеѕеrvе thеir ѕhеlf life, but to also аvоid wеld dеfесtѕ from using dаmаgеd rodѕ, аѕ еlесtrodеѕ саn go bаd relatively еаѕilу.
Wеll, relatively bесаuѕе, ѕоmе еlесtrodеѕ are mоrе ѕеnѕitivе to mоiѕturе thаn оthеrѕ, аnd thе amount оf mоiѕturе соntеnt an еlесtrodе саn withѕtаnd depends оn the tуре оf rod.
Before tackling any welding task, you should determine the right type of welding rod to use. Each of these electrodes is named based on a set of attributes that it possesses.
In welding, each metal reacts to an electric arc in different ways. There are countless variations of electrodes, but if you follow the manufacture’s guidelines, you shouldn’t have any problems welding with an unfamiliar electrode.
So, if you have a case of rods you want to use in a new project, fire up the welder and strike an arc.
How to Select Rods for Arc Welding >> Check out the video below
Here are some of my favorite tools & equipment´s
Thank you for reading this article. I hope it helps you find the most recent and accurate information for your welding project. Here are some tools that I use daily and hope you´ll also find helpful.
There are affiliate links, so if you do decide to use any of them, I´ll earn a small commission. But in all honesty, these are the exact tools that I use and recommend to everyone, even my own family. (NO CRAP)
To see all my of most up-to-date recommendations, check out this resource that I made for you!